Kidney Stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys.
Kidney Stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder.
Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.
Passing Kidney Stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they’re recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a Kidney Stone. In other instances — for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.
Your Doctor may recommend preventive treatment to reduce your risk of recurrent Kidney Stones if you’re at increased risk of developing them again.
A Kidney Stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your Kidney or passes into your ureter — the tube connecting the Kidney and bladder. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:
- Severe Pain in the Side and Back, below the Ribs
- Pain that radiates to the Lower Abdomen and Groin
- Pain that comes in Waves and Fluctuates in Intensity
- Pain on Urination
- Pink, Red or Brown Urine
- Cloudy or Foul-Smelling Urine
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Persistent need to Urinate
- Urinating more often than usual
- Fever and Chills if an infection is present
- Urinating small amounts
Pain caused by a Kidney Stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity — as the stone moves through your urinary tract.
Seek Immediate Medical Attention… if you experience:
- Pain so Severe that you can’t sit still or find a comfortable position
- Pain accompanied by Nausea and Vomiting
- Pain accompanied by Fever and Chills
- Blood in your Urine
- Difficulty passing Urine
Kidney Stones often have no definite, single cause, although several factors may increase your risk.
Kidney Stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for Kidney Stones to form.
Types of Kidney Stones
Knowing the type of Kidney Stone helps determine the cause and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more Kidney Stones. If possible, try to save your Kidney Stone if you pass one so that you can bring it to your doctor for analysis.
Types of Kidney Stones include:
- Calcium Stones. Most Kidney Stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in food and is also made daily by your liver. Some fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate content.
Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine.
Calcium stones may also occur in the form of calcium phosphate. This type of stone is more common in metabolic conditions, such as renal tubular acidosis. It may also be associated with certain migraine headaches or with taking certain seizure medications, such as topiramate (Topamax).
- Struvite Stones. Struvite stones form in response to an infection, such as a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
- Uric acid Stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who don’t drink enough fluids or who lose too much fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those who have gout. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
- Cystine Stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids (cystinuria).
Factors that increase your risk of developing Kidney Stones include:
- Family or personal history. If someone in your family has Kidney Stones, you’re more likely to develop stones, too. And if you’ve already had one or more Kidney Stones, you’re at increased risk of developing another.
- Dehydration. Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of Kidney Stones. People who live in warm climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
- Certain diets. Eating a diet that’s high in protein, sodium (salt) and sugar may increase your risk of some types of Kidney Stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much salt in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of Kidney Stones.
- Being obese. High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of Kidney Stones.
- Digestive diseases and surgery. Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the levels of stone-forming substances in your urine.
- Other medical conditions. Diseases and conditions that may increase your risk of Kidney Stones include renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, certain medications and some urinary tract infections.
- Urinalysis, an analysis of the Urine will indicate whether or not there is Blood in the Urine and if there is a subsequent Infection. Blood Tests can be carried out to identify complications that may accompany a Kidney Stone and check the validity of the diagnosis.
- A CT Scan of the abdomen is one way to test for Kidney Stones. A CT Scan will ascertain the state of the ureter, bladder, and kidneys, whether or not a stone exists, the Kidney Stone’s exact size and location, whether or not a blockage has occurred, and the state of other organs in the area, such as the appendix, aorta, and pancreas.
- Ultrasounds have also been shown to have high detection rates and can diagnose many complications associated with Kidney Stones.
- Once a person is diagnosed with a Kidney Stone, simple X-rays will be used to track the progress of the stone through the Excretory System.
Sending a Shockwave into the Kidney Stone to break it into smaller pieces know as Lithotripsy can be used. However, the treatment of Kidney Stones is primarily focused on symptom management as Passing a stone can be very painful.
If a person has a history of Kidney Stones, home treatment may be suitable. Individuals who have never passed a Kidney Stone should speak with a doctor.
If hospital treatment is needed, an individual may be re-hydrated via an intravenous (IV) tube, and anti-inflammatory medication may also be administered.
Medication is often used in an effort to manage the pain of passing the stone. Some People may experience Nausea and Vomiting, and this may be managed with Medications as well.
In some cases, People with large stones located in regions that do not allow for Lithotripsy may receive surgical procedures, such as removal of the stone via an incision in the back or by inserting a thin tube into the urethra.
There are a few steps that can be taken to reduce the impact of Kidney Stones and assist Doctors in providing treatment.
The first is drinking enough water to make the urine completely clear. A person can tell they are not consuming enough water if their urine is yellow or brown.
A Doctor may also request that a Kidney Stone is passed naturally though urinating. They will then ask that you retrieved a Kidney Stone from the urine by filtering it through a stocking or gauze.
On studying the retrieved stone, they will be able to determine what further treatment is required.
There are several foods that have a positive impact on Kidney Health. These can help reduce both the risk and impact of Kidney Stones.
For individuals in good health, preventing Kidney Stones can be as easy as staying hydrated.
Doctors may also prescribe Medicines to Prevent certain types of Stones for individuals who are at Higher Risk.
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